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## Mocking¶

### Definition¶

Mock: verb,

1. to tease or laugh at in a scornful or contemptuous manner
2. to make a replica or imitation of something

Mocking

• Replace a real object with a pretend object, which records how it is called, and can assert if it is called wrong

### Recording calls with mock¶

Mock objects record the calls made to them:

In [1]:
from unittest.mock import Mock
function = Mock(name="myroutine", return_value=2)

In [2]:
function(1)

Out[2]:
2
In [3]:
function(5, "hello", a=True)

Out[3]:
2
In [4]:
function.mock_calls

Out[4]:
[call(1), call(5, 'hello', a=True)]

The arguments of each call can be recovered

In [5]:
name, args, kwargs = function.mock_calls[1]
args, kwargs

Out[5]:
((5, 'hello'), {'a': True})

Mock objects can return different values for each call

In [6]:
function = Mock(name="myroutine", side_effect=[2, "xyz"])

In [7]:
function(1)

Out[7]:
2
In [8]:
function(1, "hello", {'a': True})

Out[8]:
'xyz'

We expect an error if there are no return values left in the list:

In [9]:
function()

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
StopIteration                             Traceback (most recent call last)
/tmp/ipykernel_13714/556001449.py in <module>
----> 1 function()

/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.12/x64/lib/python3.8/unittest/mock.py in __call__(self, *args, **kwargs)
1079         self._mock_check_sig(*args, **kwargs)
1080         self._increment_mock_call(*args, **kwargs)
-> 1081         return self._mock_call(*args, **kwargs)
1082
1083

/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.12/x64/lib/python3.8/unittest/mock.py in _mock_call(self, *args, **kwargs)
1083
1084     def _mock_call(self, /, *args, **kwargs):
-> 1085         return self._execute_mock_call(*args, **kwargs)
1086
1087     def _increment_mock_call(self, /, *args, **kwargs):

/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.12/x64/lib/python3.8/unittest/mock.py in _execute_mock_call(self, *args, **kwargs)
1140                 raise effect
1141             elif not _callable(effect):
-> 1142                 result = next(effect)
1143                 if _is_exception(result):
1144                     raise result

StopIteration: 

### Using mocks to model test resources¶

Often we want to write tests for code which interacts with remote resources. (E.g. databases, the internet, or data files.)

We don't want to have our tests actually interact with the remote resource, as this would mean our tests failed due to lost internet connections, for example.

Instead, we can use mocks to assert that our code does the right thing in terms of the messages it sends: the parameters of the function calls it makes to the remote resource.

For example, consider the following code that downloads a map from the internet:

In [10]:
import requests

def map_at(lat, long, satellite=False, zoom=12,
size=(400, 400)):

base = "https://static-maps.yandex.ru/1.x/?"

params = dict(
z = zoom,
size = ",".join(map(str,size)),
ll = ",".join(map(str,(long,lat))),
lang = "en_US")

if satellite:
params["l"] = "sat"
else:
params["l"] = "map"

return requests.get(base, params=params)

In [11]:
london_map = map_at(51.5073509, -0.1277583)
from IPython.display import Image

In [12]:
%matplotlib inline
Image(london_map.content)

Out[12]:

We would like to test that it is building the parameters correctly. We can do this by mocking the requests object. We need to temporarily replace a method in the library with a mock. We can use "patch" to do this:

In [13]:
from unittest.mock import patch
with patch.object(requests,'get') as mock_get:
london_map = map_at(51.5073509, -0.1277583)
print(mock_get.mock_calls)

[call('https://static-maps.yandex.ru/1.x/?', params={'z': 12, 'size': '400,400', 'll': '-0.1277583,51.5073509', 'lang': 'en_US', 'l': 'map'})]


Our tests then look like:

In [14]:
def test_build_default_params():
with patch.object(requests,'get') as mock_get:
default_map = map_at(51.0, 0.0)
mock_get.assert_called_with(
"https://static-maps.yandex.ru/1.x/?",
params={
'z':12,
'size':'400,400',
'll':'0.0,51.0',
'lang':'en_US',
'l': 'map'
}
)
test_build_default_params()


That was quiet, so it passed. When I'm writing tests, I usually modify one of the expectations, to something 'wrong', just to check it's not passing "by accident", run the tests, then change it back!

### Testing functions that call other functions¶

In [15]:
def partial_derivative(function, at, direction, delta=1.0):
f_x = function(at)
x_plus_delta = at[:]
x_plus_delta[direction] += delta
f_x_plus_delta = function(x_plus_delta)
return (f_x_plus_delta - f_x) / delta


We want to test that the above function does the right thing. It is supposed to compute the derivative of a function of a vector in a particular direction.

E.g.:

In [16]:
partial_derivative(sum, [0,0,0], 1)

Out[16]:
1.0

How do we assert that it is doing the right thing? With tests like this:

In [17]:
from unittest.mock import MagicMock

def test_derivative_2d_y_direction():
func = MagicMock()
partial_derivative(func, [0,0], 1)
func.assert_any_call([0, 1.0])
func.assert_any_call([0, 0])

test_derivative_2d_y_direction()


We made our mock a "Magic Mock" because otherwise, the mock results f_x_plus_delta and f_x can't be subtracted:

In [18]:
MagicMock() - MagicMock()

Out[18]:
<MagicMock name='mock.__sub__()' id='139708778652960'>
In [19]:
Mock() - Mock()

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)
/tmp/ipykernel_13714/881210313.py in <module>
----> 1 Mock() - Mock()

TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for -: 'Mock' and 'Mock'